Monday, January 20, 2020

Asynchronous Transfer Mode Net :: essays research papers

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Networking Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is, and will be for many years to come, the top of the line in networking technology. Since the creation of the Network (the ARPAnet (Advanced Research Project Agency Network)) scientists and engineers have strived to achieve the fastest information exchange speeds combined with the most cost-efficient hardware and software. Their products and ideas have always been based on packet technology and turn-based transfers; however, in the 1980s an experimental system called ATM challenged these axioms. The ATM consisted of a new topology - Asynchronism. ATM is one of many networking types, such as Ethernet and Token Ring, which differs from all networking types in its fundamental methods. Where all other networks use consistent timing to organize the information exchange (this is called Synchronism,) ATMs use start and stop bits to allow information to send itself when needed (Asynchronism.) When the information is allowed to be shipped, it has always been sent in groups of various sizes called packets. In ATM the information is sent in a standardized size, these uniform groups are called cells. New networking technology is accepted reluctantly, for choosing to buy yourself or your company a technology that does not become widely accepted means the waste of money, time, and energy. Due to this the users of ATM have been select until very recently. The major users of ATM are universities and research centers – both of who were given government â€Å"seed money† for the purpose. The users of ATM are growing very quickly and diversely as the fear of newness rubs off and envy grows toward the original users. Though the network was the primary application focus when Asynchronism was discovered, ATM networks are not the sole application of Asynchronism. Asynchronism was successfully tested in, and now used in dial-up modems, public Unix-based terminals and the like. This simpler uses of Asynchronism serves not only to advance the performance of their respective technology but also to further the general approval of ATM’s technique. Asynchronism provides a vast array of advantages over its predecessors. Behind the popularity of ATM, the evolution of networks, and the very existence of computers lies Asynchronism’s primary advance – speed. ATM transfers data from 155,52 Mbps (approximately the same speed as a Fast-Ethernet) up to 2.4888 Gbps (a speed which has never been achieved otherwise.) The average ATM network runs as three-times the speed of the Fast-Ethernet and approximately twenty-five-times that of a basic (switched) Token Ring. Asynchronous Transfer Mode Net :: essays research papers Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Networking Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is, and will be for many years to come, the top of the line in networking technology. Since the creation of the Network (the ARPAnet (Advanced Research Project Agency Network)) scientists and engineers have strived to achieve the fastest information exchange speeds combined with the most cost-efficient hardware and software. Their products and ideas have always been based on packet technology and turn-based transfers; however, in the 1980s an experimental system called ATM challenged these axioms. The ATM consisted of a new topology - Asynchronism. ATM is one of many networking types, such as Ethernet and Token Ring, which differs from all networking types in its fundamental methods. Where all other networks use consistent timing to organize the information exchange (this is called Synchronism,) ATMs use start and stop bits to allow information to send itself when needed (Asynchronism.) When the information is allowed to be shipped, it has always been sent in groups of various sizes called packets. In ATM the information is sent in a standardized size, these uniform groups are called cells. New networking technology is accepted reluctantly, for choosing to buy yourself or your company a technology that does not become widely accepted means the waste of money, time, and energy. Due to this the users of ATM have been select until very recently. The major users of ATM are universities and research centers – both of who were given government â€Å"seed money† for the purpose. The users of ATM are growing very quickly and diversely as the fear of newness rubs off and envy grows toward the original users. Though the network was the primary application focus when Asynchronism was discovered, ATM networks are not the sole application of Asynchronism. Asynchronism was successfully tested in, and now used in dial-up modems, public Unix-based terminals and the like. This simpler uses of Asynchronism serves not only to advance the performance of their respective technology but also to further the general approval of ATM’s technique. Asynchronism provides a vast array of advantages over its predecessors. Behind the popularity of ATM, the evolution of networks, and the very existence of computers lies Asynchronism’s primary advance – speed. ATM transfers data from 155,52 Mbps (approximately the same speed as a Fast-Ethernet) up to 2.4888 Gbps (a speed which has never been achieved otherwise.) The average ATM network runs as three-times the speed of the Fast-Ethernet and approximately twenty-five-times that of a basic (switched) Token Ring.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Muscle Disease

Amanda Fallon Professor Jed Wolfson Anatomy and Physiology 1 October 27, 2011 Rhabdomyolysis: Disease of Muscular Breakdown Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of damaged muscle tissues resulting in the release of muscle fiber contents into the bloodstream (Patel M. D. ). This disease occurs when there is damage to the skeletal muscle. The breakdown products of damaged muscle cells, such as myoglobin, are harmful to the kidneys and frequently result in kidney damage or even kidney failure. The severity of the symptoms depends on the degree of muscle damage and the degree of the kidney damage, if any. The primary muscle damage can be caused by physical damage, medications, drug abuse and some infections. Some patients may have a higher risk of rhabdomyolsis because of a hereditary muscle condition that is already present. There are many causes of rhabdomyolysis. One of the most common causes of this disease is a crush accident, such as an auto accident. Long lasting muscle compression is also another cause of rhabdomyolysis. Long lasting muscle compression derives from â€Å"lying unconscious on a hard surface during an illness or while under the influence of drugs or alcohol â€Å"(Chang M. D. ). An untrained athlete can also get this disease from severe muscle strain where the muscle becomes damaged. Significant muscle injury can cause fluid and electrolyte shifts from the bloodstream into the damaged muscle cells, and in the opposite direction (eMedicineHealth). Other causes of rhabdomyolysis are electrical shock, very high body temperature (hyperthermia) or heat stroke, diseases of the muscular system such as â€Å"congenital muscle enzyme deficiency or Duchenne's muscular dystrophy† (Chang M. D. ). Signs and symptoms of this disease may be hard to pinpoint because the course of the disease varies depending on the cause and each patient may experience different symptoms. Complications of this disease may also be present in the early stages as well as in the later stages. The symptoms of rhabdomyolysis come from the medical history of the patient. The patient may experience painful swollen bruised or tender areas of the body. Muscle weakness may also be experienced by the patient, such as difficulty moving the arms or the legs. Nausea, vomiting and a general sense of illness can be experienced by the patient. The rise in body temperature (hyperthermia) may cause confusion, dehydration, and even a lack of consciousness if not treated. The signs of rhabdomyolysis come from the physical findings of an examination done by a doctor or a healthcare provider. Less severe forms of rhabdomyolysis may not cause any symptoms or signs, and the diagnosis can only be found in abnormal blood tests. The urine, as seen in the photo to the right, may be dark, often described as â€Å"tea-colored†, due to the presence of myoglobin in the urine. Damage to the kidneys can occur due to decreased or absent urine production, usually 12 to 24 hours after the initial muscle damage (Patel M. D. ). A second recognized complication is disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a severe disruption in blood clotting that may lead to uncontrollable bleeding (Warren M. D. ). Muscle biopsies can be useful if an episode of rhabdomyolysis is thought to be the result of an underlying muscle disorder. A biopsy sample taken during an episode is often uninformative, as it will show only evidence of cell death or may appear normal (eMedicineHealth). Taking the sample can be delayed for several weeks or even months. The histopathological appearance on the biopsy indicates the nature of the underlying disorder (eMedicineHealth). Biopsy sites may be identified by medical imaging, such as using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as the muscles may not be equally affected by this disease. Early laboratory findings include increased levels of myoglobin, potassium, urea, and phosphorus found in blood levels. An â€Å"anion gap metabolic acidosis† could progress because of release of acids from damaged muscle tissue (Patel M. D. ). Myoglobin testing would be the best indication and the diagnostic basis because an increase of myoglobin usually will not occur in the absence of rhabdomyolysis. Diagnostic tests for urine myoglobin are often not easily available, and it may take more than 24 hours for the physician to get the results of the test. However, a typical urine screening for rhabdomyolysis may be performed as long as the urine sediment is examined as well. Complications of rhabdomyolysis also include disseminated intravascular coagulation, a condition that occurs when small blood clots begin forming in the body's blood vessels (eMedicineHealth). These clots ingest all the clotting factors and platelets in the body, and bleeding begins suddenly. When muscles are damaged swelling within the muscle can occur, causing what is called compartment syndrome. If this occurs in an area where the muscle is bound by fascia, a tough fibrous tissue, the pressure inside the muscle compartment can increase to the point at which blood supply to the muscle is compromised and muscle cells begin to die. Rhabdomyolysis is treatable and patients may recover quickly if the disease is caught in the early stages. The main goal of treatment is to prevent kidney damage or to prevent any further kidney damage. However, if left untreated, acute kidney failure develops in 30-40% of patients (Ritz). Early and aggressive hydration may prevent difficulties from this disease by rapidly removing the myoglobin from the kidneys. Hydration of the body may include using several liters of intravenous fluids until the condition is stabilized. Diuretics can also help with removing the iron-containing pigment out of the kidneys. If the patient produces an acceptable amount of urine a doctor may administer bicarbonate, which can prevent the myoglobin from breaking down into toxic compounds within the kidney (Warren M. D. ). Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys are not able to filter and process waste from the body. If the disease progresses enough and kidney failure occurs then the patient may have to undergo dialysis. Dialysis is a procedure that takes the blood out of the body and sends it into a machine, as seen in the picture to the left. The machine filters the waste products from the blood. In severe cases of kidney or renal failure a kidney transplant may be required. If the case of rhabdomyolysis is mild it can be treated at home. The home treatment would include lots of rest and sufficient hydration by drinking plenty of fluids. The overall prognosis of rhabdomyolysis is pretty good as long as it is diagnosed and treated promptly. If the instance of this disease is not severe then the patient may only have to be in the hospital for a short time period for rehydration with IV fluids and lots of rest so the muscles can recover. Acute kidney failure occurs in many of the patients. Rhabdomyolysis is the cause for as many as 15% of patients with kidney failure (eMedicineHealth). While the mortality rate for this disease is approximately 5% (eMedicineHealth). The risk of death caused by this disease depends mainly on the primary health of the patient, the amount of muscle damage that has been caused and any other associated injuries. If kidney failure occurs, the mortality rate can increase to 20% (eMedicineHealth). Rhabdomyolysis can be prevented in almost all cases. Exercise programs and routines need to be thoughtfully planned to prevent any kind of injury and to lower the risk of getting rhabdomyolysis. This includes avoiding exercising in extreme heat conditions and drinking a sufficient amount of fluids. Both these situations can lead to dehydration, which increases the risk of muscle damage. Also, the risk of rhabdomyolysis exists highly for patients taking statin and fibrate medications for high cholesterol control. Information is often provided to these patients to be aware of the symptoms of this disease and the information should be read carefully and thoroughly. In conclusion, this is a disease of the muscular system that could affect anyone in their lifetime. This disease is more common than what I had originally thought. Although it is easily treatable, it can be a very dangerous and painful disease. I am glad that I researched rhabdomyolysis because I have learned what can happen and what to do if I ever experience any of the symptoms. I have also learned the consequences of not training properly for exercise. In doing this research paper I have learned about a disease that I may see affect people in my career as a physical therapist. Bibliography Chang M. D. , Louise. WebMD. 13 September 2010. 22 October 2011 . eMedicineHealth. Rhabdomyolysis (Cont. ). 2011. 30 October 2011 . Patel M. D. , Parul. U. S. National Library of Medicine. 13 August 2009. 21 October 2011 . Ritz, Eberhard. â€Å"Disease of the Month: Rhabdmyolysis. † Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (2000): 1553-1561. Warren M. D. , JD. â€Å"Rhabdomyolysis: a review. † Muscle and Nerve (2002): 32-47.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Essay on Comparison of the American and French Revolutions

Comparison of the American and French Revolutions The American and French revolutions both compare and contrast in their origins and outcomes; both revolutions began due to the common peoples need to obtain independence and liberty from an oppressive government. The American Revolution was triggered by the American colonists need for financial independence from the overpowering nation of Great Britain, while the French revolution was a struggle to gain social equality among the masses. Although the American and French Revolutions were fought over the same ideas, the American Revolution is considered more â€Å"conservative† than the French. The intent of the American revolutionaries was not to initiate a revolution, but rather to gain their†¦show more content†¦The British found that they could no longer afford to keep fighting to remain control of the American colonies; the British surrendered in Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781. American independency was finally recognized in 1783, when the Treaty of Paris was drawn up as a result of two years of negotiations. The American colonies had been so deprived of their natural rights from the British government that the only viable solution was to have a revolution. However, the American revolutionaries were able to maintain a conservative approach to the revolution due to non-violent tactics used by the American colonists. In 1787, a few years after the British recognized American independency, the Revolution in France was beginning to unravel. France was desperately in need of financial assistance; it lacked a National Bank and National Treasury system. France had supported the American colonists in the American Revolution, and also gave financial support in the War of Austrian Succession, and the Seven Years War. A combination of the financial support given in these wars, maintaining their military, and the fact that France spent more then it collected in taxes each year, resulted in a substantial debt crisis for France. The French Revolution was also a result of the discontentment of the social structure in France. King Louis and his wife, Marie Antoinette, were very unpopular among the French because they did not care about their subjects.Show MoreRelatedComparison Of The French And American Revolution838 Words   |  4 Pagesabout the people. The people of France and America have declared their independence with their own letter to the king, The Declaration of Independence and The Declaration of the Rights of Man. These two documents of freedom will start the French and American Revolution, which leads to these to countries being independent and free from the king. The Declaration of Independence in fact is still used today. The people of America were tired of trading through England, and not being able to use whateverRead MoreThe Revolutionary War : Wim Klooster s Book Revolutions1114 Words   |  5 PagesKlooster’s book Revolutions in the Atlantic World expresses the deep roots of the revolutionary war period throughout various locations and circumstances. He strives to express the causes, effects, and the political civil war which caused the great uproar in the once colonial lands. This shift in history is noted in Klooster’s book and expanded upon in his chapter entitled â€Å"The Revolution’s Compared.† He notes the various commonalities between the American, French, Haitian, and Spanish American revolutionsRead MoreThe French Revolution1575 Words   |  7 Pagesrule, France was working to free itself from royal absolutism. This period is historically known as the French Revolution. Many scholars do not ag ree on the chronology of the French Revolution; some scholars suggest that the Revolution took place between 1789 to 1799 while others feel that it did not end until Napoleon lost power in 1815. To better understand the history of the French Revolution it is necessary to discuss the causes, major events, significant figures, and the outcomes associated withRead MoreComparing the French Revolution and the American Revolution Essay example857 Words   |  4 Pages The French and American revolutions are both very significant in the world’s history. The American Revolution happened first, around the last half of the 18th century where the Thirteen Colonies became the United States of America, and gained independence from the British Empire. The French revolution on the other hand, was from 1789 until the turn of the century 1799. For the French people this was a period of political and social turmoil. The idea of Enlightenment stuck a large populationRead MoreSimi larities Between The French Revolution And American Revolution1067 Words   |  5 PagesThe American Revolution and the French Revolution The late 1700’s was a time for cutting-edge inventions, literary and philosophical achievements, upcoming and rising leaders, and lastly, revolutions. The American revolution took place from 1770 to 1783. The French Revolution began in 1789 and lasted for a decade Both the American and French Revolution occurred at the same time and the citizens were both fighting for freedom from a monarchy, there are many important similarities and differencesRead MoreThe Age of Revolutions1515 Words   |  7 PagesThe Age of Revolutions is often a term used for a period of time, usually between 1760 -1848. Although the term encompasses many revolutions across the globe, it isn’t very often that these events are examined as a whole; compared and contrasted to show the similarities, differences, and even some potential catalytic properties between them. The book The Age of Revolutions in Global Context, c. 1760-1840, put together and edited by David Armitage and Sanjay Subrahmanyam, is a book of essays collaboratedRead MoreDifferences Between the French and American Revolutions1362 Words   |  6 PagesDifferences in the American and French Revolutions Sometimes a revolution can take place within a country against its own current state of government, other times a revolution can take place externally to rid a country of another countrys influence. There are many components that are involved in a revolution taking place. One must consider the causes or reasons of the situation, the events that occur during the revolution and the effects or aftermath that had been created by that revolution. There wereRead MoreFrench Revolution: the Solution to Class Inequality1141 Words   |  5 Pages The French Revolution was one of the most important events that occurred in the history of France. The revolution crumpled the Old Regime and completely transformed the social and political system of France. The people of France sought to establish a more egalitarian society through their newly created Republic. When Enlightenment thinkers such as John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Baron de Montesquieu introduced individual liberty, natural rights and equality the ideas of revolution emergedRead MoreEssay On The Causes Of The French And American Revolution1061 Words   |  5 PagesThe American, French, Haitian, and Mexican revolutions are epitomes of responsible citizens advocating for social and political upheaval in hopes of saving and furthering their states. These revolutions, more than others, exemplify nations that rebelled against governments which maliciously abused their power. The American Revolution focused on achieving independence from Britain, as Britain abused th eir power by unfairly taxing colonists. The Mexican Revolution concentrated on eliminating dictatorshipRead MoreThe American And French Revolutions1517 Words   |  7 PagesThe American French Revolutions The American Revolution and French Revolution were unique in world history because they used the ideas of freedom and equality from the Enlightenment, but understood them differently at the same time. Both revolutions occurred around the same time- the 18th Century, the American Revolution began on the 4th of July when Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence (Dr. Taylor). The French Revolution then follows in 1789, provoked by â€Å"...a greater demand

Friday, December 27, 2019

Comparing the Art Works of Frida Kahlo and Osamu Tezuka

Art Comparison A comparison of the works of Frida Kahlo and Osamu Tezuka based on their cultural significance. Introduction Art and culture are two heavily intertwined concepts. Art can be thought of as an expression of culture and sometimes the influence of art is so great that it can work to transform culture. Therefore the two concepts can have effects on each other that are somewhat cyclical in nature. The two concepts can also both be considered as different forms of expression just that manifest in different ways. Although culture is largely thought to be intangible and confined to consciousness, it manifests itself through actions, beliefs, and ultimately tangible items by individuals transforming matter though their experiences, beliefs, and inspirations. Culture can be considered a dynamic process that is constantly evolving. Thus art can be considered something of a snapshot of how the culture manifested itself at the time that the particular artwork was created. This essay will compare two works by artist from different periods as well as different cultures. Although there is certainly room for personal expression in art, a major part of the artwork must be driven by culture in some regard. Culture is a piece of how individuals come to gain their identities and therefore when art is created in is in some form a manifestation of that individuals culture. Frida Kahlo Frida Kahlo was raised within the context of a Mexican cultural tradition and

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Graffiti Is A Form Of Art - 1019 Words

Nhan Loc Professor: R. L. White English 93 01 December 2016 Graffiti is Art Graffiti is a form of art well known in the street art. There are many forms of arts like drawing, painting, sculpture, or graffiti. Graffiti is an art used for the community to send messages as well as representing for community identity and pride through Graffiti artwork. In the book â€Å"Read Write Connect† by Kathleen Green Amy Lawler, chapter 22 Public Art talks about what graffiti art, vandalism art is, the differences between graffiti artwork and vandalism, and the purpose of graffiti. What is street art? It is a free public art that involves many different styles such as graffiti, sticker, street posters. Graffiti is a true art has different meanings. Graffiti is an art, not a simple tagging but an actual mural that represents meanings in every detail, style, and color. According to â€Å"Public Art Street Art† by Patrick Frank, â€Å" The street artists made much broader statement about themselves and the world in a language that was widely u nderstandable†(p446), this talks about the language in art is amazing, communicating through art is a language that everyone can understand and relate to. However, some might argue that graffiti is vandalism. Vandalism is when street artists paint without any permissions of private property owners. In the articles, â€Å"What graffiti means to a community† says â€Å"Most vandals are young people, from grade school age to young adults, who damage property for reasonsShow MoreRelatedGraffiti As A Form Of Art Essay1829 Words   |  8 Pagescould explain why graffiti is popular with those who oppose gentrification. Graffiti serves as a form of art that gives those who are unheard of a voice in their community. Art can be defined depending on a person’s interpretation of it. However, according to the Merriam-Webster, art is â€Å"the conscious use of skill and creative imagination especially in the production of aesthetic objects† (â€Å"Art†). The re are no specific requirements for something to be considered as art, but art should make a personRead MoreGraffiti As A Form Of Art Essay1137 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Art is an evolutionary act. The shape of art and its role in society is constantly changing. At no point is art static. There are no rules† (Raymond Harmon). In 1966 a man named Cornbread was the first known person to ever create a piece of art called graffiti and tagging it. Later, people started tagging subways, and everyone wanted to have their own unique tag. So, they started to become creative and become different from each other. Now it has evolved over several years and become something beautifulRead MoreGraffiti As A Modern Form Of Art888 Words   |  4 PagesArt has been a highly valued way of expressing oneself in any culture. Through the use of the artistic skill one can show the oppression that may be felt from society, or to develop a certain style that follows what the culture is up to date w ith and problems that may need some emphasis to be noticed. Art is not only left for the artistically skilled to do anyone who can develop a thought and can put artistic meaning on their own creative canvas can be considered an artist. Graffiti has been consideredRead MoreArt or Vandalism? : The acceptance of graffiti as an art form2514 Words   |  11 Pagesbelieve that Graffiti is most certainly a valid art form. The question as to whether any forms of graffiti can be considered art is a controversial area. Is it vandalism when it is placed on the side of a building or a car and art when it is on a canvas on someones wall or in a gallery- what is the difference? Graffiti, in its more complex forms, can be considered art because it clearly contains artistic elements, it communicates the artists expression to the viewer, and the traditional art communityRead MoreGraffiti As A Sustainable And Decent Art Form1397 Words   |  6 Pagesthere are ongoing debates among multiple stakehol ders regarding the nature and acceptability of graffiti as a sustainable and decent art form. Having gained immense popularity in urban environments, graffiti has always been on the verge between art and vandalism. The reason for such controversial perceptions lies in the definition of graffiti and its origins. As Campos defines it, â€Å"graffiti and street art could be considered a practice through which individuals appropriate the city† and whose natureRead MoreGraffiti Art Or A Crime? Essay1285 Words   |  6 Pages Is graffiti an art or a crime? There is much controversy that surrounds graffiti even though some people may feel graffiti is an act of vandalism. I feel that graffiti is one of the most interesting expressions of art. â€Å"Art is defined as the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination† (Lloyd 1) Graffiti is an art because it uses key elements of art. These elements include color, line and form. These elements are all included in both traditional art and graffitiRead MoreShould Graffiti Be Considered An Art?929 Words   |  4 Pageson a number of occasions but one that can always be argued is the question of can graffiti be considered an art. The definition of art is â€Å"something that is created with imagination and skill† (Webster dictionary). When people argue graffiti is just a crime done they do not look at the definition of art and how graffiti falls under the definition. Graffiti should not be considered a crime but a form of art. Graffiti can be found in various parts of the world and on anything that can be painted. ItRead MoreGraffiti : A New Type Of Painting And Writing1241 Words   |  5 PagesGraffiti is a new type of painting and writing on the public place or wall and a lot of teenagers interested in it. However, there are lots of debates on the form of graffiti, one side think it is a vandalism and another side think it is a form of art. The essay will focus on discussing these two forms of graffiti and give some relevant examples. The two main points about the reason why some people think graffiti is a vandalism are indelicacy words and the problem about ownership. Another side thinkRead MoreGraffiti Vandalism Essay993 Words   |  4 PagesIs graffiti vandalism or art? Many people say that graffiti is art, while others disagree saying its vandalism. In my opinion, graffiti is art. This type of art can be understood in different ways and can be considered as vandalism. It really all depends on what the picture expresses to you and what you see. But everyone has their own opinions and everyone sees everything differently. While many of these artists who are extremely talented and spend most of their time on their pieces, our societyRead MoreEssay Graffiti: Art or Vandalism?1139 Words   |  5 PagesArt: the ultimate form of self expression. But, what constitutes an art? And, who decides? These very questions plague society as it tries to decide and define the official status of graffiti--art or vandalism? Because it has found its way into art galleries and because of the community of artists who challenge and inspire each other, graffiti should be considered art and as a way to express oneself. The origin and history of graffiti is not what one might expect. Believed to have been created by

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Strategic Marketing By TMS

Questions: (1) Create an information pack for prospective new clients that outlines the principles of strategic marketing. Your pack must cover the following topics: an assessment of the role of strategic marketing in an organisation an analysis of the relationship between corporate strategy and marketing strategy an analysis of how marketing strategy is developed. Your pack should demonstrate an understanding of the connection between strategic corporate and strategic marketing decisions and choices. You should: analyse decisions and choices that are made at a corporate level assess how these decisions influence marketing at business unit and functional level analyse approaches to competitive positioning of organisations. (2) A range of potential new clients have expressed an interest in working with TMS based on the information pack you provided. They would like some further information to understand how strategic marketing analysis may be carried out. Design a short training session for prospective clients, to develop their understanding of strategic marketing analysis. Your session must cover the following topics: an evaluation of approaches to internal environmental analysis an evaluation of approaches to external environmental analysis An explanation of how internal and external analyses are integrated. (3) Following your training session, a new client has decided to work with TMS to develop their marketing strategy. They have asked to work with you to explore how marketing strategies can be used to give them greater competitive advantage. Your task is to create a report which: identifies a range of strategies that can contribute to their businesses competitive advantage provides an analysis of marketing communication strategies for the business analyses marketing strategies and how they can be applied and implemented by the organisation, including resource and management implications. Answers: (1) Information Guide for new clients Role of Strategic marketing Strategic marketing is the catalyst for a successfully rising trajectory of success of an organization build with an aim of collaboration, competence and customization. Strategic marketing is aimed at collaborating all the activities and analyzing all the areas of operations so as to craft suitable and matching techniques as per the requirements. For a company of any scale, it is essentially important to focus and aggregate their resources into one or the other form of strategic marketing to become successful in this flexible era and dynamic market. So, the formula for success of your organization is to leverage the resource in the domain of strategic marketing. A strategic marketing approach helps in creating services and products having maximum chances of making some profit. This is due to the fact that, marketing strategy is initiated with the marketplace research by analyzing the optimal target and taking care of the competitors to build up changing trends and features.The practices of strategic marketing helps in determining the optimal pricing for the products. It will also guide the organization with the path of effective distribution techniques matching up with the requirements and expectations of different genres of consumers. The forms of strategic marketing in an organization assists with marketing communications to establish a brand value and create a better organizational impact over the operational regions. Strategic marketing therefore is a secret bridge to map strengths of the products with target audience taking care of market competition. Marketing strategy is a comprehensive plan including the mission and vision statement of the company in addition to business objectives with a unique value proposition and positioning statement. Corporate Strategy and Marketing Strategy A major focus of the marketing strategies include development, pricing and distribution of a product or a service. Corporate strategy is more inclined towards profitable initiatives whereas marketing strategy is more oriented towards sales and development of product or service.Amalgamation of principles of product orientation and profit orientation will lead a complete package of strategies deployed in an organization. The alignment of both the strategies is crucially important for every aspect of the organizational success and development. The executive branch of a company must go hand in hand and in complete collaboration with the marketing department so as to devise either of the strategies aligning with each other. For a lack of collaboration is some case studies may lead to a complete loss in the organization. To cite and example, a corporate cost containment strategy including usage of cheap materials for products might contribute in damaging an upscale business having a high b rand value. Marketing strategies lack momentum without corporate strategies and on the other hand corporate strategies lack a sense of direction without marketing strategies. Work of both the strategies in close collaboration are the actual keys for success and survival in this competitive environment. Most of the marketing plans devised and formulated by a company are served to go in greater details for the proposed marketing plans. A corporate strategy comprises of all the functional units with a complete detail of decisions, resources, objectives of the company and further details are given in in marketing plans based over 4 Ps of marketing including analysis of product uniqueness, consumer demographic, brand management strategies, promotions, social media etc. Procedure to develop marketing strategy There is a set and defined procedure for development of marketing strategy including well defined steps.The first step is to define and describe the products and the services that are offered by the company with the intentions of their marketing approach. A complete knowledge of the product should be the first priority to know the market in a better way. A rough draft for the marketing plan is essential after brainstorming session. A market study is required to know about the demographics of the customers. Segmentation, targeting and positioning must be carried out in this marketing strategy for devising profitable plans. Marketing analysis includes knowing about the size of the market, pace of the market, lifestyle of the customers etc. It is really essential to compare and contrast the services of the company with those of the competitors evaluating the positive and negative aspects of it in both of the direct and indirect ways. The unique value of the product should be determined so as to formulate and craft marketing and advertising strategies.Unique Selling Proposition of the company must be described for gaining a competitive advantage. The next step should be mapping up of the marketing budget with the current plans and goals to fit into the parameter. Finally, steps for marketing methods like internet marketing, mail advertising, promotional events etc. must be planned. This marketing strategy must be flexible enough to be modified at regular basis incorporating the changing needs of the customers. Communication of this marketing strategy to the customers and employees of the company. Decisions at Corporate level Corporate decisions shape up the future of whole business and hence must be taken with utter care and focus. Corporate level decisions and strategies give a bigger picture of the organization in terms of marketing products or services being operated upon within the companys boundaries. Resource management, staffing and capital management are corporate decisions including sense and roles of diversification. The scope of business operations, level of diversity, enterprise activities, nature of diversity, organization of business, structure and culture of the business, business boundaries and limitations, beneficial relationships like mergers or acquisitions etc. all are the key decisions taking up at the corporate level of the organization. (2) TRAINING SESSION Internal environment analysis Internal environment analysis is based over a realistic profile of the company determining its competencies and weaknesses. Development of the profile of the company must be carried out by audits by managers to seek out key operational areas for future policies (Wall, 1991). A comparative basis linked to the external market is analyzed within the organization by evaluating the current competencies. To formulate an effective strategic management plan, it is highly essential to blend careful planning, efficient execution, coordination of functions of operations, production, marketing, finance, accounting, research, development, human resource management etc. Collaborative performance by each of the responsibilities have a direct effect and bearing over the performance of the business. According to McKinsey 7S model it is essentially important to make the strategies devised fit into the culture of the organization to have one of the best utilization of resources and key skills. Value chaining which includes both primary and supporting activities is a tool to identify the moving assets of the company and control the internal environment. External environment analysis The external environment and its impact over the internal environment and functioning of the organization is more complex than internal environment analysis. Demographics and socio cultural considerations of the customers is one of the most highlighting factor for external environment. Technological trajectories are relevant to the organizations for developing their future strategies and functions. Suppliers have storehouse of power as they have a control over the necessary inputs to the organizational operational processes (Kotler, 1995). The dynamic and regulating environment is a matter of concern for every organization which when considered seriously will lead to a feasible strategy. Economic changes in the forms of recessions or booms should be tapped as opportunities by overcoming the threats in the business. Competition and problems of labor markets must be strategically poised to understand the unique value of the company and to ensure a feasible strategy that is critical to success. Alliance of Both the features It is critically important to amalgamate the knowledge and analysis of both the internal and external environment analysis so as to devise some of the most efficient marketing strategies. To blend both of the views a marketing analysis term is SWOT analysis having strengths and weaknesses that are internal to the organization clubbed with opportunities and threats external to the organization. This SWOT analysis is carried out so to review the present strategies of the marketing of a business and to formulate a bunch of further strategies in the field of marketing. (3) STRATEGIC MARKETING REPORT Strategies for competitive advantage For the company to excel in the field of their functions decisions taken at the corporate level contributes to a greater limit as they have a long term impact over the whole of the business. There can be an endless range of techniques that can be implemented in the business to have a sense of competitive advantage over other companies in the market. Adoption of internet marketing by the means of online social media sites by making the strategies go viral by the means of advertisements and promotions. With a huge use of intent and social networking websites, it is a great opportunity for any kind of business to have an attractive website and tags and pages in social networking sites to promote their business and attract a wide customer base. Adoption of lean and agile methodologies to be able to use best of the techniques in the business and minimize waste along with becoming flexible. Agility is an essential feature of contemporary business so as to include the changing demands of the customers in a dynamic market. Cross promotion techniques can be adopted by making a collaboration or alliance with a company as it is a way of experimenting and creating value for the business. The more number of publicity and promotion, more will be impact over the customers. The company can also hire human billboards for the process of advertising. It can be highly beneficial for the business to sponsor a charity cause before launch of a product or a service to promote their business in such fields to gain customer attraction. The marketing strategies are based over choosing right tools possessing right triggers to fit into the marketing framework (Lovelock, 1983). Advertisements and the modes of advertisements must be carefully chosen with help of some consulting agencies so as to target the message in a better and widespread way.Sponsorships shall be distributed for the sole purpose of advertisement. Marketing Communication Strategies The main motive to refine the marketing communication strategy is to sharpen the brand look, mission and vision statement with innovative logo and a marking statement. The brand of the business must actually speak to the customer in a relevant manner to appeal to their palate and interest. USP of the company must be exposed and uncovered so as to drive the sales of the product or the service offered by the company. This USP must be motivating and compelling to attract people and build up mediums for communications. A consistent and comprehensive communication is suggested with constant feedbacks, updates, recommendations etc. The prime strategy should be to generate some of the key positioning statements for featuring the service or the product in the line of communication. Use of descriptive and short words having inherent meaning must be used for innovative marketing communication. The communications for the marketing must be analyzed in the terms and perspectives of quantitative aspect i.e. that the communications are measurable. This can be possible by monitoring social media exposure, email open or click rates, mail response rates etc. This data should be mapped with the sales metrics to have a thorough knowledge of the strategies employed. It is highly essential to maintain a CRM, Customer Relationship Management system which is a database to ease up the channels and paths of communications in order to scale the sales and marketing processes of the company. This database can actually help to understand the clients in a better way to craft further communication strategies. Use of videos, mobile applications, content marketing and eCommerce are some for the major strategies to be focused upon for fostering a smooth communication with the clients or the potential customers. References: Kotler, P., Fox, K. F. (1995). Strategic marketing for educational institutions. Lovelock, C. H. (1983). Classifying services to gain strategic marketing insights.The Journal of Marketing, 9-20. Heath, E., Wall, G. (1991).Marketing tourism destinations: a strategic planning approach. John Wiley Sons, Inc..

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Robert Frosts the Road Not Taken Essay Example

Robert Frosts the Road Not Taken Paper Tim Parr English 102 Professor Scollon â€Å"The Road Not Taken† Robert Frost, born March 26, 1874, is considered by most to be one of America’s leading 20th Century poets. Some of his most famous works include The Road Not Taken, Design, and Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening. Frost won an unprecedented number of literary, academic, and public honors because he allows readers of different experience to relate to his poetry. Frost’s poetry is based mainly upon the life and scenery of rural New England and the language of his verse reflects the compact idiom of that region. Although he concentrates on ordinary subject matter, Frost’s emotional range is wide and deep and his poems often shift dramatically from a humorous tone to the expression of tragic experience. He uses vivid imagery, calm words, and rhythm that set a somewhat tranquil mood for every reader. He uses every aspect of the poem to play on the senses, through his creation of vivid images and varying moods. With all of these tools Frost intends to convey his own unique views as the speaker to his audience. Regardless of the original message that Robert Frost had intended to convey, his poem, The Road Not Taken, has left its readers with many different interpretations. The poem is most commonly interpreted as an advertisement of individuality, but that definition is dependent on whether or not there is a road not taken in Frost’s poem. Many scholars believe that Frost was too ambivalent in his descriptions of the two roads, and have therefore challenged the existence of a less traveled road. We will write a custom essay sample on Robert Frosts the Road Not Taken specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Robert Frosts the Road Not Taken specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Robert Frosts the Road Not Taken specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The poem simply takes a satirical look at the uncertainty of having to make choices at all, but one might argue that it urges readers, not to forge new roads, but to take pride in the ones they have already chosen. Frost begins The Road Not Taken by creating a mental image of a traveler stopped at a fork in a path, much like a person who is trying to make a difficult decision. The road that will be chosen leads to the unknown, as does any choice made in life. In an attempt to make a decision, the traveler looks down one road as far as he or she can. â€Å"And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the under growth;† As much as he or she may strain his or her eyes to see as far as the road stretches, eventually it surpasses his or her vision and he or she can never see where it is going to lead. The speaker realizes that much like anyone making any kind of decision, their destiny cannot be seen, only the choices they can make. When the traveler finally decides, the lines: â€Å"Then took the other, just as fair And having perhaps the better claim Because it was grassy and wanted wear,† possibly describe the speaker’s innate desire to not necessarily follow the crowd. This may be because of a feeling of unhappiness that was experienced by copying the actions of those before him or her, instead of making an individual decision. The desire to travel down both paths is expressed and not unusual, but the speaker of this poem realizes that the decision is not just a temporary one and â€Å"†¦doubted if I should ever come back. † At the end of The Road Not Taken, regret hangs over the traveler. He or She realizes that at the end of life, â€Å"somewhere ages and ages hence†, the speaker will have regrets about having never gone back to explore the road not taken. The traveler, however, remains proud of the decision and recognizes that it was the paths chosen that made life turn out the way is has. â€Å"I took the road less traveled by and that has made all the difference. † In this poem there is no judgment, no specificity, no moral but simply a narrator who makes a decision in their life that affects the rest of its course. At least, this is what I personally take away from the reading of Robert Frost’s The Road Not Taken. One of the great aspects of literature is that anyone can get just about anything they want to from any one piece of literature. Now I will focus on some commentary from a few authors who knew Robert Frost more intimately than I do, and are well more qualified to provide analysis of his poem. In Robert Frost: The Trial by Existence, Elizabeth Shepley Sergeant locates in Frost’s letter Crossing Paths the source for â€Å"The Road Not Taken. † To Susan Hayes Ward the poet wrote on February 10, 1912: â€Å"Two lonely cross-roads that themselves cross each other I have walked several times this winter without meeting or overtaking so much as a single person on foot or on runners. The practically unbroken condition of both for several days after a snow or a blow proves that neither is much travelled. Judge then how surprised I was the other evening as I came down one to see a man, who to my own unfamiliar eyes and in the dusk looked for all the world like myself, coming down the other, his approach to the point where our paths must intersect being so timed that unless one of us pulled up we must inevitably collide. I felt as if I was going to meet my own image in a slanting mirror. Or say I felt as we slowly converged on the same point with the same noiseless yet laborious stride as if we were two images about to float together with the uncrossing of someone’s eyes. I verily expected to take up or absorb this other self and feel the stronger by the addition for the three-mile journey home. But I didn’t go forward to the touch. I stood still in wonderment and let him pass by; and that, too, with the fatal omission of not trying to find out by a comparison of lives and immediate and remote interests what could have brought us by crossing paths to the same point in a wilderness at the same moment of nightfall. Some purpose I doubt not, if we could but have made out. I like a coincidence almost as well as an incongruity. † Elizabeth Sergeant Shepley ties the moment with Frost’s decision to go off at this time to some place where he could devote more time to poetry. He had also, she implies, filed away his dream for future poetic use. That use would come three years later. In 1914 Frost arrived in England for what he thought would be an extended leave from farming in New Hampshire. By all the signs he was ready to settle down for a long while. Settling in Gloucestershire, he soon became a close friend of Edward Thomas. Later, when readers continued to misread â€Å"The Road Not Taken,† Frost insisted that his poem had been intended as a jest at the expense of his friend and fellow poet. For Thomas had fussed over choices of the most minor sort made on daily walks with Frost in 1914, shortly before the writing of the poem. Living in Gloucestershire, writes Lawrance Thompson, Frost had frequently taken long countryside walks with Thomas. Repeatedly Thomas would choose a route which might enable him to show his American friend a rare plant or a special vista; but it often happened that before the end of such a walk Thomas would regret the choice he had made and would sigh over what he might have shown Frost if they had taken a â€Å"better† direction. More than once, on such occasions, the New Englander had teased his Welsh-English friend for those wasted regrets. . . . Frost found something quaintly romantic in sighing over what might have been. Such a course of action was a road never taken by Frost, a road he had been taught to avoid. If we are to believe Frost and his biographer, The Road Not Taken was intended to serve as Frost’s gentle jest at Thomas’s expense. Most evidence supports the notion that Robert Frost was displeased with the persistent misinterpretation of his poem by analysts, and this is supported in his Biography as well by Lawrence Thompson in Selected Letters by Robert Frost. â€Å"A short time later, when â€Å"The Road Not Taken† was published in the Atlantic Monthly for August 1915, Frost hoped that some of his American readers would recognize the pivotal irony of the poem; but again he was disappointed. Self-defensively he began to drop hints as he read â€Å"The Road Not Taken† before public audiences. On one occasion he told of receiving a letter from a grammar-school girl who asked a good question of him: â€Å"Why the sigh? † That letter and that question, he said, had prompted an answer. End of the hint. On another occasion, after another public reading of â€Å"The Road Not Taken†, he gave more pointed warnings: â€Å"You have to be careful of that one; it’s a trick poem – very tricky†. Never did he admit that he carried himself and his ironies too subtly in that poem, but the circumstances are worth remembering here as an illustration that Frost repeatedly liked to â€Å"carry himself† dramatically, in a poem or letter, by assuming a posture not his own, simply for purposes of mockery – sometimes gentle and at other times malicious. † Even though The Road Not Taken was misinterpreted by readers and analysts as it was defined by Frost does not in any way dampen the meaning readers can take away from the poem. That is the beauty of poetry; it can have any meaning that anyone wants to assign to it†¦even if the author disapproves. So again I will say that I view The Road Not Taken as a metaphor for the decisions you make in life. No matter how well you choose or don’t choose, you will always have regrets, but in the end hopefully you are pleased with the roads you have taken. Work Cited Sergeant, Elizabeth Shepley. Robert Frost: The Trial by Existence. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960 Thompson, Lawrance. â€Å"Selected Letters of Robert Frost† Best of Frost. Shefali Tripathi Mehta and Anando Banerjee, Jan. 2000. Web. 17 Jun. 2011. http://www. bestoffrost. com/what-inspired-the-road-not-taken/.